The Covenant Names of God

The idea of a covenant relationship is something that has been lost in our world today.  In its truest sense, a covenant is stronger than a promise, more dependable than a best friend.  In the early days of mankind, a covenant was an agreement between two or more entities to do or to abstain from some act or thing.  This covenant was considered to be unbreakable.  This concept comes straight from the Scriptures.  God has made several covenants with mankind, meaning that He said He would do something for us.  Since God cannot lie, nor is He unfaithful to His promises, He then has made a covenant with us in these things.  Here is a listing of the covenant names of God.

1828 Webster’s American Dictionary of the English Language – an agreement between two or more persons to do or refrain from doing some act; a compact; a contract; in Biblical usage, the agreement or engagement of God with man as set forth in the Old and New Testament.  A formal agreement of legal validity.

Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance – Old Testament   H1285  b riyth  (ber-eeth’)  a compact (because made by passing between pieces of flesh): confederacy, covenant, league.  New Testament   G1242  diatheke  (dee-ath-ay-kay)  a disposition, a contract: covenant, testament.

YeHoVah  (YHWH) or Jehovah

“I AM”  The One who is the Self-Existent One.  The name “Lord,” which is introduced in Genesis 2:4.

  • God never changes.  His promises never fail.  When we are faithless, He is faithful.  God promises His continuing presence.  Exodus 3:14; 15:2; Psalm46:1; Psalm 68:4; Isaiah 26:4
  • This was God’s personal name given to Moses.  It occurs about 6,800 times.
  • “Lord” is the personal and covenant name by which God reveals Himself to His own people.  This personal name is used in situations where He is seen in direct relationship to His people or to nature.
  • Where the words “Lord God” are coupled together, they point to God as the all powerful Creator who has entered into a caring covenant relationship with humankind.
  • Until this time, He was referred to as Elohim, the general name for God, emphasizing His greatness and power.

Yah or Jah

This is the shortened version of YHWH (YeHoVaH).

  • It is often used when combined with other names or phrases.  Hallelujah means “Praise Yah.”  Elijah means “God is Yah.”  Joshua means “Yah is my salvation.”
  • A 16th century German translator wrote the name YHWH using the vowels of Adonai, because the ancient Jewish texts from which he was translating had the vowels of Adonai under the consonants of YHWH.  By doing this, he correctly came up with the name Jehovah (YeHoVaH).

Jehovah – Jireh

“The Lord Will Provide”     Genesis 22:13, 14

This is the account of Abraham taking Isaac to one the mountains, in the land of Moriah, to offer him as a burnt sacrifice, as instructed by God.  Because Abraham was obedient to God, the Lord spoke of Abraham’s devotion to Him (“for now I know that you fear God, since you have not withheld your son, your only son, from Me.”) and provided a substitute sacrifice; the ram caught in the bush.

  • God sometimes tests the faith of His children.  Testing must be considered an honor in God’s kingdom.  Abraham, Joseph, Job, Daniel, Shadrach, Meschach & Abed-Nego, Jonah, Joseph & Mary, and Paul are examples.
  • God may be trusted to provide His presence, grace, and all that is necessary for any circumstances that lies within His will.  Psalm 46:1 – 3; 2 Corinthians 9:8; 2 Corinthians 12:9; Ephesians 3:20
  • God at times works His redemptive purpose through the death of a vision.  Mark 14:43 – 50; Mark 15:25; Mark 15:37
  • After a trial of faith, God will confirm, strengthen, establish and reward the believer.  1 Peter 5:10 
  • The way to find true life in God is through the willingness to sacrifice all that God requires.  Matthew 10:37 – 39; Matthew 16:24 – 25; John 12:25 
  • After a test of suffering and faith, the outcome of all the Lord’s dealing toward the believer is “full of compassion and mercy.”  James 5:11

Jehovah – Mekaddishkem

“The Lord Who Sanctifies”      Exodus 31:12, 13; 1 Peter 1:15, 16; Hebrews 13:12; 1 Thessalonians 5:23, 24

  • God sets us apart as a chosen people, a royal priesthood, holy unto Himself; a people of His own.  He cleanses our sin and helps us mature.
  • We have been set apart, made holy, and redeemed by the blood of Jesus Christ.  Therefore, we are to continue to live our lives holy and pleasing to God.  1 Peter 1:13 – 15

Jehovah – Nissi

“The Lord Our Banner”  Exodus 17:15, 16; Deuteronomy 20:3, 4; Isaiah 11:10 – 12; Ephesians 6:10 – 18 

  • God gives us victory against the flesh, the world, and the devil.  Our battles are His battles of light against the darkness, good and evil.
  • The name of the altar built by Moses after defeating the Amalekites at Rephidim.
  • Isaiah prophesies that the “Root of Jesse” (Jesus) will stand as a banner for the peoples.  Isaiah 11:10

This covenant name comes from the account when the Amalekite army attacked the Israelites at Rephidim.  Joshua led the Israelites into battle while Moses, Aaron and Hur stood upon the top of the mountain with the staff of God.  As long as Moses held up his hands, the Israelites were victorious, but when Moses lowered his hands, the Amalekites were victorious.  So as Moses tired, Aaron and Hur held Moses’ hand up till sunset.  Joshua and the Israelite army overcame their enemy.

Jehovah – Rapha

“I Am The Lord Who Heals You”  Exodus 15:25 – 27; Psalm 103:3; Psalm 147; 1 Peter 2:24

  • God has provided the final cure for spiritual, physical, and emotional sickness in Jesus Christ.  God can heal us!
  • Jesus demonstrated that He was Jehovah – Rapha in His healing of the sick, blind, lame, and casting out of demons.  Jesus also heals His people from sin and unrighteousness.  Luke 5:31, 32
  • This covenant name appears at the end of the account where the waters of Marah were bitter.  The Israelites were complaining to Moses as they were thirsty.  So Moses cried out to the Lord and received instruction from Him regarding what to do.  Exodus 15:26

Jehovah – Rohi

“The Lord My Shepherd”  Psalm 23:1 – 3; Isaiah 53:6; John 10:14 – 18; Hebrews 13:30; Revelation 7:17

  • The Lord protects, provides, directs, leads, and cares for His people.  God tenderly takes care of us as a strong and patient Shepherd.
  • Jesus is the Good Shepherd who laid down His life for all humankind.
  • Not just our Shepherd, but my Shepherd.  (This is personal!)  God is so concerned about each one of His children that He desires to love, care for,  protect, guide, and be near that child, just as a good shepherd does for his own sheep.
  • Believers are the Lord’s sheep according the Psalm 100.  We belong to Him and are the special object of His affection and attention.  As His sheep, we can claim the promises of Psalm 23 when we respond to His voice and follow Him.

Jehovah – Sabaoth       

“The Lord Of Hosts”  “The Lord Of Armies”  1 Samuel 1:3; 1 Samuel 17:45; Psalm 46:7; Malachi 1:10 – 14; Romans 9:29

  • The Lord of the hosts of heaven will always fulfill His purposes, even when the hosts of His earthly people fail.
  • Many English versions of the Bible translate Sabaoth as Almighty.  “Jehovah – Sabaoth” is often translated as The Lord Almighty.  Sabaoth is also translated as Heavenly Hosts or Armies.

Jehovah – Shalom

“The Lord Our Peace”  Judges 6:24; John 14:27; John 16:23 

  • An altar built by Gideon.  This is the account in Judges 6 just before Gideon goes to tear down the Ashera pole.
  • Jesus confirms in the book of John that He has come to give us peace, as we will experience tribulation in this life.  We are to be of good cheer because He has overcome the world.

Jehovah – Shammah 

“The Lord Our Ever-Presence”  Ezekiel 48:35; Isaiah 41:17; Isaiah 42:16; Hebrews 13:5; Revelation 21:3

  • Ezekiel prophesies regarding the New Jerusalem after the Second Coming of Jesus, the Millennium, the Great White Throne Judgment, when it descends from heaven and the YeHoWaH (along with Jesus Christ) permenantly abide there with His people.
  • Jesus confirms this covenant relationship in the New Testament when He states in Hebrews that He will never leave us nor forsake us.

Jehovah – Tsidkenu

“The Lord Our Righteousness”  Jeremiah 23:6 

  • Jeremiah the prophet, proclaims the coming of Jesus through prophecy and names Him as The Lord Our Righteousness.
  • He becomes my righteousness.
  • God promised to raise up a king from the lineage of David who would be a righteous Branch; this King would finally and fully do what was just and right.
  • His full execution of judgment will occur after His Second Coming and before His Millennial reign on the earth.  He will be called “The Lord Our Righteousness.”  The believing remnant will “be found in Him, not having a righteousness of their own that comes from the law, but that which is through faith in Christ – the righteousness that comes from God and is by faith.”  Philippians 3:9

Immanuel

“The Lord Is Salvation; God Our Savior; God With Us”   Isaiah 7:14; Isaiah 8:8; Matthew 1:23

  • Jesus serves as Mediator between unholy man and a Holy God.
  • This name only appears three times throughout the entire Bible.
  • Another Old Testament scripture that appears to justify this covenant is located in 2 Chronicles 7:14 – 15:  “If My people, who are called by My name, will humble themselves, and pray and seek My face, and turn from their wicked ways, then I will hear from heaven, and will forgive their sin and heal their land.  Now My eyes will be open and My ears attentive to prayer made in this place.”

Adonai

“The Lord God Is My Strength”  Psalm 8; Isaiah 40:3 – 5; Ezekiel 16:8; Habakkuk 3:19

  • God is the Master and majestic Lord.  God is our total authority.
  • Adonai (plural) is derived from the singular Adon (Lord).  This term was pronounced in substitution of YHWH (which was considered too sacred to be uttered.)

El

“The Strong One”   Exodus 15:2; Numbers 23:22; Deuteronomy 7:9; Mark 15:34

  • He is more powerful than any false god.  God will overcome all obstacles. We can depend on God.
  • This name occurs more than 200 times in the Old Testament (including compounds).  Generic Semitic name for God, used by other cultures to refer to their gods.  El is used in compound proper names, such as :Isra-el (wrestles with God), Beth-el (House of God), and El-isha (God is salvation).

El Elohe Yirael

“God, The God Of Israel”   Genesis 33:20; Exodus 5:1; Psalm 68:8; Psalm 106:48

  • The God of Israel is distinct and separate from all false gods of the world.
  • This is the name of the altar that Jacob (Israel) erected after his encounter with the Angel of the Lord and God’s blessing upon him (Genesis 32:24 – 30; Genesis 33:19, 20).

El Elyon

“The God Most High”   Genesis 14:17 – 22; Psalm 78:35; Daniel 4:34; Acts 16:17

  • He is the Sovereign God in whom we can place our trust.  El Elyon has supremacy over all false gods.
  • Melchizedek, the king of Salem (Jeru “Salem”) and the priest of God Most High, referred to God as “El Elyon” three times when he blessed Abram.

Elohim 

“The All-Powerful One Creator”     Genesis 1:1 – 3; Deuteronomy 10:17; Psalm 68; Mark 13:19

  • God is the all-powerful Creator of the universe.  God knows all, creates all, and is everywhere at all times.  The plural of “El.”
  • This name is usually associated with God in relation to His creation.  Some people use the plural word “Elohim” as proof for the Trinity (Genesis 1:26).  Elohim is also used to refer to false gods and even human judges (Psalm 82:6, 7; John 10:34).

El Olam

“The Eternal God”  “The Everlasting God”   Genesis 21:33; Psalm 90:1

  • He is the Beginning and the End, the One who works His purposes throughout the ages.  he gives strength to the weary.
  • Jesus Christ possesses eternal attributes.  He is the same yesterday, today and forever (Hebrews 13:8).  He obtained eternal redemption for us (Hebrews 9:12).

El Roi

“The God Who Sees Me”     Genesis 16:11 – 14; Psalm 139:7 – 12 

  • There are no circumstances in our lives that escape His fatherly awareness and care.  God knows us and our troubles.
  • Hagar called the Lord by this name beside a fountain of water in the wilderness.  God knows all of our thoughts and feelings.
  • Jesus knew the thoughts of those around Him, demonstrating that He is El Roi.  Matthew 22:18; Matthew 26:21, 34; Luke 5:21 – 24 

El Shaddai

“The All Sufficient One, The God Of Mountains, God Almighty”         Genesis 17:1 – 3; Genesis 35:11, 48; Genesis 49:25; Psalm 90:2 

  • God is the all-sufficient source of all of our blessings.  God is all-powerful.  Our problems are not too big for God to handle.
  • Some scholars suggest that Shaddai refers to God’s power evident in His judgment.  Others suggest that El Shaddai means “God of Mountains.”  God refers to Himself as “El Shaddai” when He confirms His covenant with Abraham.